Avocados are ancient fruits and are native to Central America and Mexico. Avocado is a tropical fruit and looks similar to a pear. Butter has a nut-like flavor and the flesh has a buttery consistency. Avocados are eaten raw in salads, dips and sandwiches. They are richer in fat than any other fruit except olives-20%-30% fat, 93% unsaturated. There are more than 500 varieties of avocado. Some can be grown in temperate regions with warm winters; others can only be grown in semi-tropical and tropical regions. Avocados are grouped by cultivation according to their origin; These groups are called races. There are three races: Mexican, Guatemalan and West Indian. In addition, there are hybrid avocado varieties – most hybrid avocado varieties are a cross between Mexican and Guatemalan varieties.
The most important process to have a good product is the cultivation stage. Know the conditions, risks and processes to take into account for a nutrient-rich product.
Avocados are best planted in early spring. This will vary depending on your region, but spring planting is better than summer planting because extreme heat can stress young, tender plants. Areas with spring rainfall are ideal for providing plenty of water for young plants to sustain growth.
To have a standard variety, most people propagate by grafting or tissue culture (less common)… these are asexual propagation methods, which help to retain almost 100% of the characteristics of the mother plant, different from In the case of seed propagation, there is a great divergence in varieties.
Among the popular avocado varieties today, Booth 7 avocado variety, originating from the US, is considered a high-quality, high-yielding variety, bringing high economic efficiency to avocado growers. Besides, hass avocado variety is also being tested and studied for its own characteristics.
Soil: Avocado is adaptable to many different soils, but basalt red soil is still considered the most suitable soil. The pH is from 5 to 7, the appropriate rainfall must be from 1,200 to 1,500mm and the appropriate temperature is from 15 to 25 degrees Celsius.
How to grow avocado: For pure avocado, the distance for planting avocado is 9m x 6m or 8m x 7m, and if intercropping for shade or windbreak for coffee trees, 9m x 9m or 9m x 12m is a suitable distance. Digging hole distance is 60 x 60 x 60cm dug hole.
Use a knife to make a cut along the avocado pot, then put a plastic bag and cut off the long roots from the pot, then put it in the hole and cover with soil, compact the soil around the pot, when filling, you should cultivate the soil at the base of the avocado. slightly higher in order to limit water stagnation at the base when experiencing prolonged heavy rain. Immediately after planting, it is necessary to plug a small stake next to the root to fix the tree to prevent breakage due to rain and wind. Note when planting, if it is sunny for a long time, it is necessary to irrigate each root with about 10-20 liters of water. It is necessary to add about 5 – 10 g of Furadan 3H or Confidor before putting manure in the pit to eliminate termites and nematodes.
Pruning: Avocados need little pruning. New growth appears at the ends of branches; if you prune the branches you will limit the size of the tree. There is no need to thin the fruit unless the weight of the fruit threatens to break the branch.
Avocados do not need fertilizer, especially in the first year of planting. Young roots are especially sensitive to burning from over-fertilizing, so it’s best to stay away and let your plant grow. Good quality soil will provide the plant with everything it needs.
After the first year, you can apply a dilute fertilizer once a year in the spring to improve growth. However, if your soil is already rich in nutrients then this is not essential. Always fertilize according to the exact instructions on the package to avoid damaging the roots.
Harvesting and Storing Avocados
Avocados do NOT ripen on the tree. Harvest time varies depending on the variety of avocado. Fruit maturity is indicated when the stem closest to the fruit turns black or brown. Hand cutting is the most common harvesting method.
Most avocado trees bear fruit five to seven years after planting. Avocados are ready to pick when their color change is complete. Varieties that are dark purple or nearly black will deepen as they ripen. The skin luminosity of green varieties will begin to dull and turn slightly yellow when ripe. The fruit can be kept on the tree until it begins to fall.
To test for ripeness, choose a fruit with a short stem and then place it on the counter for a few days. If the stem does not shrivel or turn dark, the fruit is ripe and it may be safe to pick other fruits.
Avocados do not soften until they are picked, they usually soften from the tree after three to eight days. Fruit will soften at room temperature, cooling will slow down ripening.
Post-Harvest in Avocados: – Pruning, cleaning, sorting, grading and washing the fruits are part of the post-harvest operations before they are put on the market. Pack Sorted Avocados into well-ventilated cartons and transport them to the market.
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Video resource: Noal